Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart

Serenade No. 1 for orchestra in D major, K. 100 (K. 62a)

    Description by James Reel

    Sometimes referred to as a cassation, this serenade is scored for strings (but not cellos; this music was designed to be played while standing outdoors) and pairs of oboes (doubling on flute), horns, and trumpets.

    Often this serenade is prefaced by Mozart's March in D, K. 62; the musicians would literally have marched into the performance area while playing this music. The serenade proper opens with an Allegro with the flair of an opera overture, taking off from a scurrying violin figure.

    Next come the work's three key movements. First there's a lengthy Andante, a sweet piece with prominent solo roles for oboe and horn. Indeed, this may be the first music Mozart specifically wrote for Joseph Ignaz Leutgeb, for whom he would later compose his horn concertos. Mozart provides about a minute and a half of easygoing music, repeated in full, before offering a slightly troubled middle section whose problems are eased by a return of the opening material, pausing for a little horn-and-oboe cadenza just before the end.

    After this is a Minuet -- the first of three scattered through the work -- for strings alone. The outer sections are in G major and hold to the conventional courtly minuet character of Mozart's time; the central trio slips into D major and brings back the oboes and horns. The ensuing Allegro has the strings leaping and swirling around animated horn and oboe solos; in all but name, this is a sinfonia concertante for the two instruments.

    Although Mozart seems to have put his greatest ingenuity into these movements, several more sections follow, still pleasant music if on a slightly lower level of inspiration. There's a march-like Minuet with the wind instruments blended into the ensemble; in the middle they retire for a gentler strings-only trio in G major. A lovely Andante, with a burbling bass line, features flutes soaring overhead (in Mozart's time, the oboists would have doubled on flute).

    Yet another Minuet comes next, this one the most exuberant of all; again, the sharply marked rhythm seems almost martial, especially with the rushing violin scales that may be a faint echo of a favorite technique of the period's Mannheim composers. Unexpectedly, the trio here is the most understated of all, reducing the dynamics and tiptoeing through D minor without woodwinds.

    The serenade concludes with an exuberant Allegro, a joyful but never hard-driven rondo whose episodes unexpectedly veer briefly into minor keys.


    1. Allegro
    2. Andante
    3. Menuetto & Trio
    4. Allegro
    5. Menuetto & Trio
    6. Andante
    7. Menuetto & Trio
    8. Allegro

    Appears On

    Year Title Label Catalog #
    2010 Philips
    2010 Decca
    2008 Philips 4646602
    2006 Philips 464780
    2006 Philips
    2005 Brilliant 92540
    2003 Brilliant 99733
    2001 BIS 1010
    2001 Cascavelle 1063
    2000 Capriccio Records 49514
    1999 Philips 422500
    1998 London 458310
    1995 London 443 458-2DF2
    1994 Naxos 550609
    1994 Capriccio Records 10377
    1990 Philips 422503
    Brilliant 92627
    Dinemec Classics 23
    Brilliant 92627/5
    Brilliant 99733/5
    L'Oiseau-Lyre 417518
    Erato 88101