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Jungle / Drum'n'Bass

Based almost entirely in England, Jungle (also known as drum'n'bass) is a permutation of hardcore techno that emerged in the early '90s. Jungle is the most rhythmically complex of all forms of techno, relying on extremely fast polyrhythms and breakbeats. Usually, it's entirely instrumental -- it is among the hardest of all hardcore techno, often consisting of nothing but fast drum machines and deep bass. As its name implies, jungle does have more overt reggae, dub, and R&B influences than most hardcore -- and that is why some critics claimed that the music was the sound of black techno musicians and DJs reclaiming it from the white musicians and DJs who dominated the hardcore scene. Like most techno genres, jungle is primarily a singles genre designed for a small, dedicated audience, although the crossover successes of Goldie (with his 1995 debut Timeless) and Roni Size (with the Mercury Award-winning New Forms) suggested a broader appeal and more musical possibilities than other forms of techno. Dozens of respected artists followed in their wake, fusing breakbeat with influences lifted from jazz, film music, ambient, and trip-hop.