Ludwig van Beethoven

Symphony No. 6 in F major ("Pastoral"), Op. 68

    Description by Roger Dettmer

    For roughly 175 years, the music appreciation racket has told us that Beethoven composed symphonies in contrasting odd-even pairs after 1803, none more startling than the heaven-storming Fifth and bucolic Sixth. Originally, however, he assigned the designation of "No. 5" to the Pastoral for their shared debut on surely the most historic night in Western music, December 22, 1808. Beginning at 6:30 p.m. in the unheated Theater an der Wien, he premiered both symphonies, the Fourth Piano Concerto, "Choral" Fantasy, "Ah! perfido!" (a concert aria from 1796), and introduced a Viennese audience to excerpts from the C major Mass, an Esterházy commission of 1807 that Prince Nicolaus II disliked when he heard it.

    Beethoven began making specific notes for a "Sinfonia pastorale" in 1806, but didn't complete the work until 1808, in the village of Heiligenstadt northwest of Vienna. If this had been an unlikely hatchery in 1807 for the fist-brandishing Fifth Symphony, it perfectly suited -- as he noted in his sketchbook -- "recollections of country life...more the expression of feeling than of painting" in his ensuing woodwind-drenched symphony (although violins get first crack at nine of its 12 significant themes).

    "Cheerful impressions wakened by arrival in the country" (Allegro ma non troppo, in F major, 2/4) is the first movement. It is in sonata form, pretty much by the book, with violins introducing all themes. The second-movement "Scene by the brook" (Andante molto moto, in B flat major and 12/8 time) is a Sonata structure again, but more relaxed, with a limpid main theme for violins and a bassoon sub-theme. In the coda, the flute impersonates a nightingale, the oboe a quail, and the clarinet a cuckoo. The third movement, "Merry gathering of country folk" (Allegro, 3/4 time, F major), is an expanded song-and-trio, with a 2/4 section in "tempo d'Allegro" that creates the effect of an ABCABCA structure, leading without pause to the fourth movement, "Thunderstorm; tempest" (Allegro; F minor, 4/4). From the first raindrop to last, this is purely depictive music. It is followed by a 10-bar chorale that segues the final "Shepherd's song; glad and grateful tidings after the storm" (Allegretto; F major, 6/8), a sonata-rondo, whose C-section some have called a development section. The fun includes a sly parody of amateur musicians before the long, progressively tranquil coda that ends with a pianistic gesture: two fortissimo chords.

    Parts/Movements

    1. Allegro ma non troppo (Awakening of happy feelings on arriving in the country)
    2. Andante molto moto (Scene by the Brook)
    3. Allegro (Peasant's merrymaking)
    4. Allegro (The storm)
    5. Allegretto (Shepherds' song. Joyous thanksgiving after the storm)

    Appears On

    Year Title Label Catalog #
    2018 Edition Taschenphilharmonie ETP 010
    2018 Urania Records WS 121364
    2018 Alpha 380
    2018 Warner Classics
    2018 Capriccio Records C 7275
    2018 Warner Classics
    2018 Sony Classical 19075850472
    2018 Decca / Deutsche Grammophon 4798418
    2017 Warner Classics 0190295886691
    2017 Berlin Classics 0300926 BC
    2017 Tafelmusik Media TMK 1034CD
    2017 Decca / London
    2017 Opus KURA OPK 2116
    2017 Decca / London
    2017 Warner Classics 0190295824600
    2017 Accentus ACC 80322
    2017 Nimbus Records NI 1713
    2017 Deutsche Grammophon 4797477
    2017 Pentatone Classics / PentaTone Classics PTC 5186250
    2016 Deutsche Grammophon 4795805
    2016 Warner Classics 0190295975098
    2016 Deutsche Grammophon 4795977
    2016 RCA Red Seal 88875169792
    2016 Orchid Classics ORC 100059
    2016 Deutsche Grammophon 4796314
    2016 Profil - Edition Günter Hänssler PH 13037
    2016 Berliner Philharmoniker BPHR 160091
    2016 Tacet TACET 974
    2015 Analekta AN 291505
    2015 LPO LPO 0085
    2015 K-Tel 136438
    2015 Profil - Edition Günter Hänssler PH 14026
    2015 Sony Classical / Sony Music Distribution 88875112822
    2015 MDG MDGSC 9371883
    2015 BR Klassik 900136
    2015 Sony Classical 88875123912
    2015 Deutsche Grammophon 4794306
    2015 Andromeda ANDRCD 9079
    2015 Walt Disney D 002066392
    2015 Melodiya MELCD 1002295
    2014 Deutsche Grammophon
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    2014 Ermitage / Fabula Classica FAB 12060
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    2004 High Definition Classics 048
    2004 Deutsche Grammophon 000218502
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    2004 Naxos 8508007
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    2004 Sony Music Distribution 92480
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    2004 Laserlight 40027
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    2004 Intersound 5854
    2004 Biddulph Recordings 008
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    2003 EMI Classics / EMI Music Distribution 57445
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    2003 Artemis Classics 1192
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