Known alternatively as "God Save the King," the British National Anthem arose from unclear sources. That it was performed in September and October 1745 at London's Drury Lane Theatre and at Covent Garden is not in question. Prompted by the victory of the insurgent Jabobites at the Battle of Prestonpans (Scotland), the anthem was arranged in three parts by one of the most famous composers of the day. Thomas Augustine Arne for Drury Lane. Charles Burney, a student of Arne's, arranged the same melody for the Covent Garden Theatre performances. The anthem appeared in a popular magazine in October 1745, arranged in two parts "as sung at both playhouses." Thesaurus Musicus, published the year before, contains an anthem nearly alike in the principal vocal line. The first line reads "God Save our Lord and King." When Marshal Wade marched his troops to Scotland in October 1745, a verse was added to Arne's version beseeching a victory over Scottish rebellion. The anthem had been found in an earlier volume of music, one predating Thesaurus Musicus. In Harmonia Anglicana, it was published in 1743. Some scholars maintain that it was the work of Henry Carey, a contributor to the publication. Allegedly composed sometime between 1736 and 1740, it was sung by Carey at a dinner party celebrating Admiral Vernon's victory at Portobello. At the gathering, Carey claimed it as his own. Other sources contain tunes or texts similar to the anthem, but not conclusively so. A volume attributed to Dr. John Bull, Chapel Royal organist under James I, contains some melodies not unlike the anthem arranged by Arne, but the texts were different. Another theory put forth by some Scots is that the anthem was based on a 1611 carol whose text read "Remember, O thou man." Although "God Save the Queen" is recognized the world over as the British National Anthem (the tune has been employed also for anthems of other nations), the music and text have not, together or separately, been made official by Royal Proclamation or by an Act of Parliament. Rather, the anthem continues to be sung as an example of tradition. In 1832, Samuel F. Smith employed the tune, as published in
Thesaurus Musicus, for "My Country, 'Tis of Thee."