The Staatskapelle Dresden or Dresden State Orchestra, also known as the Sächsische Staatskapelle Dresden (State Orchestra of Saxony, Dresden), is one of Europe's oldest continuously operating performing arts organizations. It has numbered some of Europe's most famous composers and conductors among its music directors, and amid changing fashions has enjoyed an almost unbroken reputation for high quality.
The orchestra dates back to 1548, when Dresden was part of the Holy Roman Empire; it was founded by the Elector Moritz of Saxony to accompany the court chorus in the new large choral compositions of the time. It evolved from an even older group, the Kurfürstlich-Sächsische und Königlich-Polnische Kapelle. During the 17th century, its music directors included Heinrich Schütz and Michael Praetorius. As opera grew at the Dresden court, one of the orchestra's main functions was to accompany the leading German opera company of the day, and Johann Adolf Hasse was the music director or Kapellmeister from 1734 to 1763. The orchestra and opera persisted through the unrest of late 18th century Europe, emerging as an operatic center under Carl Maria von Weber in the early Romantic era. Other famous names to conduct the orchestra in opera were Richard Wagner, who called it a "magic harp" and premiered Rienzi, Die fliegende Holländer, and Tannhäuser there, and, later, Richard Strauss.
In 1858 the orchestra began giving concerts of symphonic music, and here again its reputation grew quickly. Music directors in the 20th century have included Fritz Reiner (later conductor of the Chicago Symphony Orchestra), Karl Böhm, Herbert Blomstedt, Giuseppe Sinopoli, Bernard Haitink, and, since 2012, Christian Thielemann.
Thielemann released a recording of Bruckner's Symphony No. 4 in E flat major ("Romantic") on the Hänssler label. Many of its historical performances have also been remastered and re-released. In the 21st century, the orchestra has also begun a composers-in-residence program; holders of position have included Hans Werner Henze, Sofia Gubaidulina (twice), Wolfgang Rihm, and, in 2017-2018, Arvo Pärt.