Martin Bowes founded the darkwave/industrial ambience of Attrition in his native England during the early '80s, well before the ethereal mystery of fellow goth rock artists such as Lycia, Black Tape for a Blue Girl, and Covenant. They've released over ten albums independently, but formed a relationship with Projekt in 1989 when the label released the retrospective Recollection '84-'89 and introduced Attrition to the States for the first time. Five years later, Projekt founder and Black Tape for a Blue Girl frontman Sam Rosenthal and Bowes reissued Attrition's back catalog as well. In 1997, the band hooked up with opera singer Frank Dematteis to compose an album of classical imagery entitled Etude. Tours of the U.S. followed, and in 1999, Attrition returned to its electro-industrial roots to release The Jeopardy Maze.