Although not as well-known in the West as his countrymen Adam Makowicz, Tomasz Stanko, and Michal Urbaniak, Wróblewski has been one of the dominant figures in Polish jazz since the late '60s. Wróblewski played clarinet, tenor sax, and piano while studying agriculture at a Polish technical college; his first professional experience was with Krzysztof Komeda in 1956. Beginning in 1958, he studied at the Higher School of Music in Krakow. That year, he was chosen by George Wein and Marshall Brown to play in the International Youth Band, which performed at the Brussels World's Fair and the Newport Jazz Festival. In 1960, he played and recorded with Stan Getz and a group of Polish musicians; the resulting album was issued as Jazz Jamboree '60.
Wróblewski led many Polish jazz groups during the 1960s, including the Jazz Outsiders and the Polish Jazz Quartet. He played some free jazz, but -- while occasionally prone to experimentation -- he remained attached to more traditional forms. Wróblewski formed the Polish Radio Jazz Studio orchestra in 1968 and led the band until 1977; it included most of the country's top jazz players at one time or another. Around that time, Wróblewski was also vice president -- and later president -- of the Polish Jazz Society. He led several of his own ensembles during the '70s, including Mainstream (co-led with Wojciech Karolak), Chalturnik (an experimental aggregate), and his quartet.
Wróblewski played the 1979 Calcutta Jazz Festival and in 1981 traveled to the U.S., where he performed at the Village Vanguard in New York and that year's National Association of Jazz Educators Convention in St. Louis. He continued to lead his own groups in the '80s and '90s. In 1993, he played the Istanbul Jazz Festival and the next year, he played the Hanover Jazz Festival with the group. In 1996, Wróblewski performed in Chicago and at the New York Polish Jazz Festival. Wróblewski's nickname is Ptaszyn or Ptak (Bird). While Wróblewski plays solidly in the jazz vernacular, his work is informed by Polish folk music.