A spin-off of the Tone Sharks, Boundary Issues is an experimental avant-garde trio that specializes in an abstract and cerebral yet funky style of electric free jazz. Combining avant-garde jazz with rock and funk, the Corvallis, OR-based threesome draws on influences that range from Ornette Coleman's Prime Time and electric '70s-era Miles Davis to Jimi Hendrix (who was starting to get into jazz-rock fusion before his death in 1970). Boundary Issues' work also brings to mind such electric explorers as Sonny Sharrock, Jamaaladeen Tacuma, Paul Wertico, and Ronald Shannon Jackson. Unlike the equally left-of-center Tone Sharks, Boundary Issues doesn't use any horns; trombonist Brent Heyne and saxophonist Tom Bergeron (two of the Tone Sharks' noteworthy soloists) are not part of the lineup. Consisting of Steve Willis on electric guitar, Page Hundemer on electric bass, and Dave Storrs on drums, Boundary Issues is, in fact, the Tone Sharks' rhythm section; take away the Tone Sharks' horn players and you have Boundary Issues. The trio was formed in 2001 when Willis, Hundemer, and Storrs decided to launch a side project. Beginnings and Endings, Boundary Issues' debut album, was released in 2001 on Storrs' Corvallis, OR-based Louie label.