“Black and Blue” is deserved one of the best known collaborations by Fats Waller and Andy Razaf, written around the same time as another of their big hits, “Ain’t Misbehavin’,” for the musical Connie’s Hot Chocolates. Unlike the latter song, “Black and Blue” is a serious ballad about the suffering of Negroes in the 1920s. It was sung in the show by Edith Wilson to high critical praise. Louis Armstrong, who wasn’t in the original production of Connie’s Hot Chocolates but was later added, made “Black and Blue” part of his repertoire, first recording it in 1929, while numerous live recordings as late as 1965 have also been released. Although hundreds of artists have performed “Black and Blue” none had matched Armstrong’s effective vocals. Oddly enough, Waller never recorded this masterpiece himself and it was unfortunately one of a group of 18 songs (also including “Ain’t Misbehavin’”) which he sold outright for a pittance to publisher Irving Mills later that same year, losing out on what would have become considerable royalties from it.