Ludwig van Beethoven

Piano Sonata No. 14 in C sharp minor ("Moonlight"), Op. 27/2

    Description by James Reel

    Beethoven billed each of the two works published under Op. 27 as a "sonata quasi una fantasia," presumably a hint that he was trying to meld the formal conventions of the eighteenth century sonata with a newer, freer, more Romantic style. Many musicians consider the first of this pair, the Piano Sonata No. 13 in E flat major (1800-1801), to be the superior work, but the Piano Sonata No. 14 in C sharp minor (1801) is by far more popular; in fact, it is one of Beethoven's most beloved works, and its first movement takes a place among the most widely and instantly recognizable music the composer ever penned. The familiar appellation "Moonlight" is not the composer's own, but the invention of German music critic Ludwig Rellstab, who compared the first movement's rippling texture to the moonlight shimmering on Lake Lucerne.

    The first movement is marked Adagio sostenuto, a virtual invitation to draw out the music to such an extent that the slight, probing melody becomes difficult to follow, leaving listeners to be hypnotized by the undulating arpeggios that serve as an introduction and then (theoretically) recede into accompaniment. The right tempo is key to the effectiveness of this movement. Played too fast, the music sounds mechanical; perhaps more frequently, though, it is played with with funereal slowness. A tempo between these extremes brings out the music's yearning character, particularly in the portion in which slow sighs rise and fall in the treble, with a weary echo in the bass.

    The first movement is not really in sonata form; it essentially lays out thematic material -- a brooding opening, the "sighing" passage, and a regretful little hymn -- with some poignant modulations along the way, then repeats everything. The second movement, Allegretto, is a short, delicate interlude with a syncopated tune in the treble that is interrupted by slightly darker ruminations in the bass during the central section. The Presto transforms the first movement's contemplative arpeggios into a frantic, obsessive figure whose upward ripple that even infects the melody, investing the finale with a character that looks forward to the "Waldstein" Sonata. This movement, rather than the first, is the one that assumes a sonata allegro form, though Beethoven breaks with tradition by making all the thematic units equally agitated. If the Adagio was a reflection of private, inner thought, the Presto is high public drama, an unexpected and effective contrast to the sonata's intimate beginning.

    Parts/Movements

    1. Adagio sostenuto
    2. Allegretto
    3. Presto agitato

    Appears On

    Year Title Label Catalog #
    2016 Marquis / Marquis Classics MQS 81523
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    2016 Claudio / Claudio Bohema CR 5575-2
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    2016 Skylark Music SKY 1601
    2016 DG Deutsche Grammophon 002894795516
    2016 DG Deutsche Grammophon B002436502
    2016 Claudio / Claudio Records CR 60346
    2016 Claudio / Claudio Records CR 60342
    2016 Evidence EVCD 020
    2016 North Star Music 312
    2016 Gramola GRAM 99083
    2016 Musical Concepts MCS 3201
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    2016 DG Deutsche Grammophon 002894794110
    2016 Sentient Spirit Records
    2016 Naxos 8578324-25
    2015 DG Deutsche Grammophon 4795448
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    2006 Arbiter ARBITER149
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    2006 DG Deutsche Grammophon / Universal Classics & Jazz
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    2006 Madacy / Start TC 252373
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    2006 DG Deutsche Grammophon 000764972
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    2005 BIS 1460
    2005 Romeo Entertainment 7233/41
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    2005 Artemis Classics 1263
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    2005 St. Clair / Baby's First 43202
    2005 BBC Legends / BBC Music 41662
    2005 Lion LMC 136CD
    2005 Schweizer Radio DRS
    2005 Delta Distribution 16317
    2005 DG Deutsche Grammophon 4775694
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    2004 High Definition Classics 002
    2004 RCA Red Seal 62311
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    2004 Newport Classic 60172/3
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    2004 Dynamic 432/1-9
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    2002 Concas/Mondragon / Concas-Mondragon Prod 69998
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    1984 London 410 260-2DH
    1983 DG Deutsche Grammophon 400 036-2GH
    Benson 2290
    4
    Allen Barton
    Dante 107120
    The Piano Library 220
    Grammofono 2000 78598
    Art Voice 4895
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