Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart

Piano Sonata No. 11 in A major ("Alla Turca") K. 331 (K. 300i)

    Description by Brian Robins

    The Sonata in A is the second of three sonatas now established as likely to have been composed during 1783, perhaps during the period Mozart and his wife Constanze spent in Salzburg in the summer months of that year. This was the occasion on which the composer introduced his new bride to his father Leopold. Mozart clearly intended this trio to form a group, numbering them from one to three. They were almost certainly composed with his Viennese pupils in mind, teaching forming one of Mozart's principal sources of income during his early years in the Austrian capital. The present sonata has gained particular fame for its last movement, the "Rondo alla turca." That movement took its inspiration from the popularity of quasi-Turkish music in Vienna, a fashionable form already exploited by Mozart in his German singspiel, Die Entführung aus dem Serail (The Abduction form the Harem) of the previous year. The Rondo includes a march-like B section in a major key with rolled block chords that evoked the drums of the Turkish Janissary bands, ancestors of the modern marching band. Some commentators have also heard echoes of the opera in the opening movement, which, uniquely among Mozart's sonatas, is a set of variations. Its lilting theme one of the composer's most memorable inventions. The central movement is a Minuetto in the tonic key of A, with a central trio section in D, making the sonata also unique in Mozart's output in that none of the three movements is in sonata form. Along with its two companions, the A major Sonata was published in Vienna by Artaria in 1784, rapidly attaining a popularity that has persisted until the present day. As with so many of Mozart's works, it offers much for both Kenner and Liebhaber, connoisseurs and mere lovers. Its Turkish element places it among the first pieces of music in the European tradition to show any kind of non-Western influence. Beyond that, it offers a greater-than-usual complement of unforgettable Mozartian melodies.

    Parts/Movements

    1. Theme. Andante grazioso
    2. Menuetto & Trio
    3. Alla Turca. Allegretto (Rondo)

    Appears On

    Year Title Label Catalog #
    2016 Decca 4824476
    2016 Deutsche Grammophon 002894795516
    2016 Deutsche Grammophon 4812662
    2016 Warner Classics 0825646942060
    2016 Naxos 8578324-25
    2016 APR (Appian) APR 7307
    2016 Oehms Classics OC 1830
    2016 Deutsche Grammophon
    2015 Deutsche Grammophon 4794350
    2015 Sony Classical 88875032222
    2015 MSR Classics MS 1502
    2015 Sony Classical 88875051802
    2015 Gramola GRAM 99030
    2015 La Dolce Volta LDV 19
    2015 Genuin GEN 15371
    2015 Wigmore Hall Live WHLCD 0078
    2015 eOne EOMCD 7758
    2015 Profil - Edition Günter Hänssler PH 15021
    2015 ABC Classics ABC 4812222
    2015 ABC Classics ABC 4812225
    2015 Deutsche Grammophon 4822418
    2015 Delos DE 3452
    2014 Deutsche Grammophon
    2014 Harmonia Mundi HMU 9075293
    2014 Deutsche Grammophon
    2014 Deutsche Grammophon 4793622
    2014 Erato 2564624223
    2013 Accent ACC 24254
    2013 Gramola 98989
    2013 Elite Special
    2012 Krescendo Records / Zebralution
    2012 Sony Classical 88725413592
    2012 MDG / Zebralution
    2012 Anima Records 9040001
    2012 Sony Classical 88691912562
    2012 BIS 1985
    2012 Intim Musik 119
    2012 Concerto / Zebralution
    2012 Harmonia Mundi HMG 50838889
    2012 TYX Art TXA 12001
    2011 Documents 233079
    2011 La Dolce Volta LDV 03
    2011 Brilliant Classics 94198
    2011 Avie 2209
    2011 Transart Live TR124
    2011 Red Bus Classical RCLAS 033
    2011 Sony Classical 88697939812
    2011 Regis Records 1345
    2011 Blue Griffin Recording BGR 239
    2010 EMI Classics / Warner Classics 5099968582
    2010 Naxos 857809698
    2010 APR (Appian) 7303
    2010 Denon Records
    2010 Brilliant Classics 94034
    2010 Decca
    2010 Royal Philharmonic Masterworks / RPO 29000
    2009 Colosseum / Zebralution
    2009 Sony Classical Essential Classics 7572992
    2009 EMI Classics / Warner Classics 5099926508
    2009 Denon Records
    2009 Erato / Virgin Classics 5099969947
    2009 Landmark Entertainment 6009
    2009 Sony Music Distribution 88697575002
    2009 Denon Records
    2008 EMI Classics / Warner Classics 5099920610
    2008 Brilliant 93162
    2008 EMI Classics 229232
    2008 MDG 3411308
    2008 Erato 4696943
    2008 Berlin Classics 0184322
    2008 Eroica Classical Recordings 3404
    2008 EMI Classics 367524
    2008 Bella Musica / Zebralution
    2008 Decca 4674502
    2008 Brilliant Classics 92733
    2008 Bella Musica / Zebralution
    2008 Altara Music 1026
    2008 EMI Classics / EMI Music Distribution 358149
    2008 Philips 4646602
    2008 Sony Music Distribution 714824
    2007 The Gift of Music GM180CD
    2007 Deutsche Grammophon 734046
    2007 ZMI ZMICD 103
    2007 Musicaphon 56883
    2007 Orion 83116
    2007 Musical Concepts 141
    2007 Profil - Edition Günter Hänssler 6015
    2007 Berlin Classics 0149012
    2007 Doremi Records 7901
    2007 Regis Records 1255
    2007 Brilliant Classics 93294
    2007 EMI Classics 87894
    2007 Pierian 0030
    2007 Dal Segno 017
    2007 Deutsche Grammophon 4777152 GM 2
    2007 Brilliant 93180
    2007 Archipel 0341
    2006 ZYX Music 81819
    2006 Vox Aeterna 00103
    2006 Motette 13161
    2006 Summit Records 451
    2006 Decca / Deutsche Grammophon / Philips / Universal Classics & Jazz
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    2006 Erato / Virgin 0946351793
    2006 Fazer / Finlandia
    2006 Brilliant 93025
    2006 BIS 1633
    2006 Deutsche Grammophon 002894775200
    2006 Deutsche Grammophon
    2006 Orfeo 712062
    2006 Universal Classics & Jazz
    2006 Philips
    2006 Deutsche Grammophon 000583202
    2006 EMI Music Distribution 36080
    2006 Music & Arts CD-1001
    2006 EtCetera Records 4015
    2006 Sony Music Distribution 88808
    2006 Avie 2105
    2006 Universal Classics & Jazz
    2006 Philips
    2006 Camerata Records 25027
    2006 SPJ Music 95802
    2006 Doremi Records 7870
    2006 Simply 024
    2006 Querstand 216
    2005 SPJ Music 5654
    2005 Fleur de Son 57968
    2005 St. Clair 94282
    2005 Brilliant 92702
    2005 Brilliant 92614
    2005 Warner Classics 4623362
    2005 Antes / Antes Edition 319217
    2005 Archipel 0226
    2005 Classic Art 101
    2005 Brilliant 92268
    2005 Philips 7055
    2005 Harmonia Mundi 901856
    2005 Naïve 8905
    2005 Archipel 0220
    2005 Direct Source 4435
    2005 Artek 23
    2005 Deutsche Grammophon 4775756
    2005 Decca / Deutsche Grammophon
    2005 Brilliant 92540
    2004 Cameo 8861
    2004 Doremi Records 71144
    2004 Andante 2070
    2004 Lion Music Ltd. / Lion LMC 089CD
    2004 Urania 4228
    2004 Brilliant 92388
    2004 St. Clair 43972
    2004 St. Clair 93902
    2004 Decca 460825
    2003 Hungaroton 12085
    2003 Sony Music Distribution 90439
    2003 Gramola GRAM 98701/5
    2003 Eroica Distribution 3182
    2003 RCA Red Seal / Sony BMG 09026639772
    2003 Harmonia Mundi 1951374
    2003 Sony Music Distribution 8799
    2003 RCA 55705
    2003 Decca 000018002
    2002 Concas/Mondragon / Concas-Mondragon Prod 69998
    2002 Connoisseur Society 4248
    2002 Sony International / Sony Music Entertainment 87860
    2002 Astree 8867
    2001 Testament 1221
    2001 Direct Source 9065
    2001 Urania 175
    2001 Musicians Showcase 1040
    2001 Direct Source 7839
    2001 Nimbus 1739
    2000 Claves 509705
    2000 Aura Classics 0209
    2000 Direct Source Special 6253
    2000 Direct Source 83682
    2000 Direct Source 83712
    2000 Direct Source 6522
    2000 Vox 5510
    2000 Signum UK 5100
    2000 Classicworks 66112
    2000 Delta Distribution 49385
    2000 Intersound 1771
    2000 Philips 000575602
    2000 Philips 462903
    2000 Decca
    2000 Intersound 2900
    2000 BIS 835/37
    2000 EMI Music Distribution / Warner Classics 7243573915
    2000 Tring 072
    2000 St. Clair 30522
    2000 Direct Source Special 62162
    2000 GSP Recordings 1004
    2000 Boxsets / St. Clair 94112
    2000 Orfeo D'Or 530001
    1999 Philips 456886
    1999 Pearl 0043
    1999 Philips 454987
    1999 Philips 456928
    1999 Music & Arts 660
    1999 Deutsche Grammophon 463137
    1999 Decca / Deutsche Grammophon
    1999 Hungaroton 31804/6
    1999 Intersound 3856
    1999 Philips Classics 446921
    1999 Twin Sisters 10164
    1998 APR (Appian) 5524
    1998 Berlin Classics 0093452
    1998 Atlantic 21970
    1998 Harmonia Mundi 7901374
    1998 Arte Nova 7432134058
    1997 Nimbus 1775
    1997 Philips 456132
    1997 Sony Music Distribution 63290
    1996 The Piano Library 191
    1996 Syrinx Record 96101
    1996 Philips 454244
    1996 Arbiter ARBITER104
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    1995 Centaur Records 2234
    1995 Athene 3
    1995 Vox 5512
    1995 Deutsche Grammophon 4377632
    1995 Gallo 663
    1995 Philips 446238
    1995 Sony Classical 52627
    1995 London 443717
    1995 Denon Records 78909
    1995 Philips 446 222-2PB25
    1995 Boston Skyline 131
    1994 Denon Records 8007
    1994 Naxos 505012
    1994 Naxos 550448
    1994 Naxos 550258
    1994 Hungaroton 31009
    1994 Bongiovanni 55552
    1994 Sony Classical Essential Classics 53461
    1993 Simax 1092
    1993 Olympia (Classical/Jazz) 230
    1993 Sony Classical Essential Classics 53456
    1992 Sony Classical 48233
    1992 Vox 5046
    1991 EMI Music Distribution 63688
    1991 Deutsche Grammophon 431 760-2GH6
    1991 Deutsche Grammophon / Universal Music Classics and Jazz
    1991 EMI Music Distribution 67294
    1991 Philips 422719
    1991 Deutsche Grammophon
    1991 Astree 8683
    1991 Philips 000121802
    1991 Sony Music Distribution 45613
    1990 Deutsche Grammophon 429808
    1990 RCA 60407
    1990 Deutsche Grammophon 429 739-2GH
    1989 Hungaroton 31009/14
    1989 CBS Records 44797
    1984 Philips 412123
    Philips 420839
    Legend 143
    As Disc 11017
    obh 011105
    Public Music Inc. 1023
    Pearl 9481
    Sirio 530025
    Enterprise 191
    Music Tins 53926
    Madacy 53927
    West 0314097759
    Disques Pierre Verany 789054
    Vivace 319
    Amado Classics 01031
    Finlandia 99953
    Kontrapunkt 32092
    Brilliant 92630
    Denon Records 77615
    Camerata Records 15091
    Art Composer's Gallery 003670
    EMI Music Distribution 63719
    Vox 7194
    Discover 920200
    Delta Distribution 15877
    Brilliant 93180/25
    Brilliant 93162/9
    Brilliant 92614/1
    Brilliant 92702/9
    London 417817
    EMI Music Distribution 74983
    Teldec 44077
    Russian Compact Disc (RCD) 30101
    Brilliant 92388/16
    Brilliant 92268/3
    Brilliant 92630/3
    Brilliant Classics 93669/16
    Accord 205162
    Denon Records 1517
    Miro Classical Records
    Laserlight 14143
    Mezhdunarodnaya-Kniga 418027
    Harmonia Mundi 77604
    Digital Masterworks 71826
    Adda 581121
    EMI Music Distribution 49963
    Virgin 61101
    Pilz 160131
    Erato 45619
    Discover 920215
    Musical Heritage Society 566052
    Pro-Arte Records
    Sony Music Distribution 47222
    Teldec 9031724832
    Teldec 242741
    Cantilena Records
    Deutsche Grammophon 469 163-2GP2
    Edition HERA 2200
    The Piano Library 289
    Columbia 88697130942-46
    CBS Masterworks 44681
    As Disc 303
    Memoria 991009
    Arius Records 3707
    Pilz 446411-2