Texas-born Dixon began his music career as a teenaged vocalist, singing with Grammy Award-winning conductors George Bragg and Gregg Smith, and the Texas Boys' Choir. He made his recording debut as a member of the University of Houston Wind Ensemble. A master trombone player who has recorded with keyboard player Eddie Green, guitarist Tom Bennett, and the University of Houston Wind Ensemble, Joe Dixon has devoted much of his focus to teaching pre-college trombonists. He has taught privately in the United States, Italy and Germany.
Dixon's approach to the trombone was developed under the guidance of several influential teachers. He initially studied under Leon F. Brown of the University of North Texas; Allen Ostrander, the bass trombonist of the New York Philharmonic and the NBC Symphony, and Roger Smith, of the Metropolitan Opera Orchestra and the Goldman Band. He continued his studies with Gordon Sweeney, the principal trombone player of the Toronto Symphony, and Glenn Didson of the Philharmonic Orchestra, and continued his studies with Sweeney and Glenn Dodson of the Philharmonic Orchestre. Their 1999 recording of Gustav Holst's "The Planets" and Aaron Copeland's "Appalachian Spring" was nominated for a Grammy Awards as Best New Classical Recording, Best Orchestral Performance, and Best-Engineered Album (Classical). Dixon has conducted master classes and served as a panelist for the Music Educators' National Conference in 2002..