Carlo Campioni was born in France, but is known as an Italian composer and follower of Tartini. His father worked as an official for the Duke of Lorraine in France, but the family eventually moved to Tuscany. His first appointment as a musician came in 1752 when he was hired as maestro di cappella for the Cathedral in Livorno. In 1763, the Grand Duke of Florence appointed him maestro di cappella to the court, and he kept this position until his death in 1788. He also held the position of maestro di cappella at the church of Santa Maria del Fiore, and at the Oratory of S. Giovanni Battista.
Campioni composed in many genres. He was a prolific composer of instrumental music, publishing six sets of trio sonatas and 12 sets of duets. In his trio sonatas, the cello line is often turned into a melodic obbligato that complements the two upper voices. And Campioni was fond of the fugal middle movement that later became popular with sonata composers. He also wrote masses and other liturgical music, as well as music performed at special festive events, such as the wedding of the Archduke Joseph, and requiems for funerals.